Of engineering - geotechnical surveys - the work of, aimed at the study properties of the grounds and groundwater of arrays, used as a reinforced ground structures, environments, for the device of underground constructions of, and also for estimation of stability of of natural and of anthropogenic of groundwater of arrays, of the slopes and slope protection.
Engineering - geotechnical surveys - as an independent engineering studies introduced relatively recently. In issued a decree "On the engineering surveys for the preparation of project documentation, construction and reconstruction of capital construction," where, in the engineering survey was a new kind of - engineering geotechnical surveys.
In the accordance with the by this order, in structure of engineering - geotechnical surveys stand out the following kinds of of the works:
Penetrant structure of mountain workings with of their assaying and laboratory of investigating the mechanical properties of the grounds with the definition of of characteristics for of specific schemes of calculation of reason to of foundations;
Field testing of of soils with the definition of of their standard of strength and deformation of characteristics (punching, shear and pressiometricheskie, shear). Tests of imaged and the of full-scale piles;
Determination of of standard mechanical characteristics of soils methods of static, of dynamic and of drilling sensing data;
Physical and mathematical simulation of interaction of of buildings and structures with the of the geological the medium;
Special studies of soil characteristics of individual programs for non-standard, including non-linear methods of calculation of foundations and structures of buildings;
Geotechnical control of the construction of buildings, facilities and the adjacent the territories.
Is necessary to to note that the geotechnical surveys, by its a matter of fact, do not are a new kind of works. The specified kinds of of works, incoming in the the composition of geotechnical surveys, previously performed by the in the the composition of engineering-geological researches or on separate assignments by engineers-geologists of the, by hydrologists, by geophysicists - depending on the of specific goals and of tasks. Learn how much you can earn working on geotechnical engineering jobs.
Of engineering - geotechnical surveys (as a rule, additionally or in the complex with of engineering - geological research) are fulfilled in cases of:
- The construction of of objects of increased the level of of responsibility and of unique of objects;
- The construction of of objects with a deep the underground part of more than 10 m;
- The construction of of objects in the the conditions of dense of city building;
- The construction of facilities state at the with the development of of dangerous geological and engineering-geological processes.
Of engineering - geotechnical surveys allow to solve the the following tasks.
At a preproject the stage of geotechnical surveys, including the preliminary determination of zones of influence of of the designed of construction on a basis of funding of materials of engineering surveys of past years of age and hydrogeological survey at the pre-project stage with the taking into account the of the concept of construction: the
- The zone of the changes of hydro-geological of conditions (the depth of bedding of, the quality of of underground of waters, hydrogeology);
- The zone of the changes the is intense-of the deformed the state of with the taking into account the a preliminary concept of fencing foundation pit and the forecast of change of hydro-geological of conditions;
- The settlement seismicity of the a site of construction (a seismic microzoning of).